> TVS` X7bjbj 4RX/2,<2<Ndddd???$hZ.??dd
dddBk*
0< F ?h9T???
???<222$V222V222
Pilot Study to establish Reliability and Validity for a ResearcherDesigned Survey
Excerpted from Simon, M. K. (2011). Dissertation and scholarly research: Recipes for success (2011 Ed.). Seattle, WA, Dissertation Success, LLC.
Find this and many other dissertations guides and resources at
HYPERLINK "http://dissertationrecipes.com/" http://dissertationrecipes.com/
Selections from: The Wasted Resource: Attitudinal Problems of Calculator Use in the Classroom (Simon, 1990, diss)
Despite urgings from the NCTM, and other professional organizations, that handheld calculators be available to all elementary school students at all times, the reality is that they are not. In order to get directly to the heart of the research under investigation and determine factors that might influence a teachers decision to refrain from allowing calculators in a classroom, a survey entitled SOCU was developed by the investigator and administered by the investigator and administrative assistants. The independent variables in the study were: Attitudes (A), support for calculators use (S), and personal use of Calculators (P). The dependent variable was the degree to which teachers actually used the calculator in the classroom (U). SOCU draws from the previously validated surveys developed by Utairat and Loke (1988) and Graeber, Rim and Unks (1977). A copy of the SOCU survey is included in this document. [In addition to SOCU, mathematics anxiety was measured by the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS)  a major 98item scale used for research and clinical studies since 1972]
HYPOTHESIS 1: There is a relationship between mathematics anxiety in elementary schoolteachers and the willingness to use calculators as part of their everyday curriculum.
H01: There is a relationship between mathematics anxiety in elementary schoolteachers and the willingness to use calculators as part of their everyday curriculum
HYPOTHESIS 2: There is a relationship between elementary schoolteachers using calculators in their classroom and their attitudes about calculator use.
H02: There is no relationship between elementary schoolteachers using calculators in their classroom and their attitudes about calculator use.
HYPOTHESIS 3: There is a relationship between allowing students to use calculators in the classroom and district support of calculator use.
H03: There is no relationship between allowing students to use calculators in the classroom and district support of calculator use.
HYPOTHESIS 4: There is a relationship between elementary schoolteachers using calculators in the classroom and their own personal use of calculators.
H04: There is no relationship between elementary schoolteachers using calculators in the classroom and their own personal use of calculators.
HYPOTHESIS 5: There is a relationship between an elementary schoolteachers level of mathematics anxiety and their own personal use of calculators.
H05: There is no relationship between an elementary schoolteachers level of mathematics anxiety and their own personal use of calculators.
HYPOTHESIS 6: There is greater usage of calculators in the classrooms of teachers with relatively lower levels of mathematics anxiety.
H06: There is no greater usage of calculators in the classrooms of teachers with relatively lower levels of mathematics anxiety.
To assure that the questions on SOCU were germane to the study, a working table was prepared containing a list of questions related to the hypotheses under investigation. This also helped determine that need to use a survey as the tool for data collection. The following guidelines were used in designing SOCU:
1) Simplicity and clarity; short questions that asked for short responses.
2) Words that might be unfamiliar to the respondent were avoided.
3) Questions with double negatives were avoided.
4) When multiplechoice questions were used, all possibilities were covered.
5) Questions with two parts were avoided.
6) Bold print was used for words that were critical to the meaning of the questions, especially negative words like not or no.
7) Only important questions were asked. The researcher felt that most respondents dislike long questionnaires or questionnaires that ask too many unimportant questions. Since MARS is a 98item scale survey, it was particularly important to keep SOCU short.
8) Suggestive questions or questions that contained the item writers biases were avoided.
A pilot study of 30 participants was conducted to test for reliability and validity. The survey was administered twice, during a 7 day interval. Approximately 8 minutes administration time was sufficient for most participants. Participants were encouraged to avoid spending an excessive amount of time in deciding on answers. SOCU were hand scored and took approximately three minutes, per form, to grade and measure each variable.
Test/Retest Estimate of Reliability
The correlation between the two separate measurements were calculated using a Spearman rho test with r = 0.97Internal Consistency
Internal consistency was established after the first administration of the survey to the pilot group by grouping questions that measured the same variable. Cronbach's alpha was used to split all the questions on SOCU every possible way and computes correlation values for them.
Reliability Data: Internal consistency reliability, Cronbach alpha r = .94 for variables A, and S, and r = .96 for variables P and U.
Validity
Face validity, construct validity and content validity were determined by three experts in the field. Each expert had at least 15 years experience teaching mathematics, had published peerreviewed articles on both technology and mathematics anxiety, and had presented their findings at professional meetings. The researcher defined the domains that the study intended to measure. The experts agreed that the questions were sufficient to measure these domains through their perspectives. Criterion related validity was established through personal interviews with 10 participants in the pilot study.
Questions 110 determines the variable A. In questions 1, 3, 9 and 10, the answer "yes" or "ns" received zero points and the answer "no" received 1 point. In questions 2, 4,5,6,7, and 8, the answer "yes" received 1 point and the answer "no" or "ns" received zero points. A score of zero indicated an extremely negative attitude towards calculator use in the elementary school classroom, whereas a score of 10 indicated a very positive attitude towards calculator use in elementary school classroom.
Questions 1116 and 23 determines the variable U. In question 13, the answer "yes" or "ns" received zero points and the answer "no" received 1 point. In questions 11,12,14,15 and 16 the answer "yes" received 1 point and the answer "no" or "ns" received zero points. For question 23, the answer (a) was given 4 points, (b) three points, (c) two points, (d) one point and (e) zero points. A score of zero indicated virtually no calculator use in the elementary school classroom, whereas a score of 10 indicated a total integration of calculator use in the elementary school classroom. Subjects who responded "yes" to question (1) were automatically given a U score of zero.
Questions 1722 determines the variable S. In questions 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22, the answer "yes" received 1 point and the answer "no" or "ns" received zero points. An S score of zero indicated no district support for calculator usage in the elementary school classroom, whereas a score of 6 indicated a great deal of support for calculator usage in the elementary school classroom.
Questions 24 and 25 determines the variable P. For question 24 the answer "yes" received 1 points and the answer "no" or "ns received zero points. For questions 25 the subject received one less point than the number on the scale, for example, the answer 1 received zero points, and the answer 10 received 9 points. A P score of zero indicated no personal use of a calculator, whereas a score of 10 indicated a total integration of calculator usage in the subjects personal life.
SURVEYS ON CALCULATOR USE
(SOCU)
Name ___________________________School _____________
Grade level currently teaching _________ No. years teaching ___
DIRECTIONS: PLEASE ANSWER YES next to the statements below that you agree with and NO next to the ones that you disagree with. If you are not sure whether or not you agree or disagree, please write NS. There is no right or wrong answer to any question.
1. My students are too young to use a calculator ____
2. Students should be allowed to use calculators in the elementary classroom for checking answers._____
3. Children should master the four basic operations before using a calculator._____
4. Calculators should not be used in the elementary classroom while learning basic facts ____
5. Calculators should be used in the elementary classroom as a method of motivating children._____
6. Students should be allowed to use calculators in the classroom for problem solving activities.___
7. Children in elementary school should be able use a calculator to do any homework problem involving computations ______
8. Children in elementary school should be able to use a calculator to do any problem in the classroom involving computations. ______
9. Using the calculator may cause some children to lose their ability to compute or remember basic facts. ______
10. I think children could become too dependent on calculators. _______
I1. I have a classroom set of calculators. ______
12. Children are allowed to bring calculators to my classroom on any day._____
13. Bringing calculators to class would present a security problem. _______
14. I allow students to use calculators on my tests ______
DIRECTIONS: PLEASE ANSWER YES next to the statements below that you agree with and NO next to the ones that you disagree with. If you are not sure whether or not you agree or disagree, please write NS. There is no right or wrong answers.
15. I would like students to be able to use calculators on standardized tests._____
16. Students in my class use calculators for subjects other than mathematics___
17. The mathematics curriculum used in my school states how and when calculators should be used in the elementary classroom. ____
18. The mathematics textbook that I use has activities written for the calculator._____
19. My school district provides time and motivation for the sharing of ideas on how to effectively use the calculator in the classroom. ._____
20. I have attended calculator workshops. _____
21. Calculators are used during inservice workshops in my school district._____
22. I feel that I have the necessary training to use calculators effectively._____
Circle the answer below that best answers the question:
23. During a typical school month (approximately 20 days) my students would use a calculator in my mathematics classroom about:
a)1520 days b) 1014 days c) 59 days d) 1 4 days e) 0 days
DIRECTIONS: Please answer the questions below regarding your own personal use of a calculator:
24. Do you have a calculator for your own personal use? _______
On a scale of 1(never) to 10 (all the time) rate how frequently you use a calculator in your personal life.
never all the time
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
25. Please describe the type of situations in which you would be most likely to use a calculator outside of the classroom:

Thank you so much for your participation.
References
Graeber, Anna O.,EuiDo Rim, and Nanacy Unks. A Survey of Classroom Practices in Mathematics: Reports of First Third, Fifth and Seventh Grade Teachers in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc., 1977.
Utairat, Suwattana and Michael Liau Tet Loke. "Teachers' Reaction to the Use of Calculators in Primary Schools." Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in S.E. Asia Vol: XI, 1 (June 1988):2327.
T& ' T U t u v ,

Y
\
{
~
e}~ !ef
F
35 !$'/0»Ʃ¢ƛ͛¢¢¢h'h9*hzhh'hh'hK0h'h=5\hK0h=6hyh=hK0h'h=h=h#p0JB*phjh#pUh!/Th#p6h#ph#ph[(5h#ph#p57T& v 4!>\
dd\$gd[($
d\$a$gd=
$dha$gd#p$0<^`0a$gd#p0<^`0gd#p$
d\$a$gd[(X703?=>AENQ[\bkm(7jwSVbd»»»»»»»»»»ªªªh'h^#I5>*\h'h^#I5\h'hBfh'hWXOh'h^#Ih^#Ih'hzhzhh'hhK0hK0hK0h'hK0h'hO#hO#>SbkCd`gd[(dgd'
d^gd[(
ld^lgd[(
dd\$`gd[(
dd\$gd[(
dd\$gdzLTjAfopJX u ~ !!{$$$$$$$$&&'''ƿؿh'hWh'hO#h'h'h'h'h^#I5h'h[(5\hbhh'h[(h'hRhzh'h^#Ih'hWXODfp!b$%'''' (!(b(c(
d`gd[($
d`a$gd[($
Pd`Pa$gd[(
dd\$`gdbd`gd'
dd\$`gd[(d`gd[('''b(m(~((((/)2):)f)))s*w******+++v++++,*,<,I,,...T.^.g.v.~......//%/0/D////0%0Q0e000000 111>1111(202g222,373?4E4h'hR5\h'hRh'h^#I>*h'h^#Ih'hW5\h'h^#I5\Pc(g)h)))**\*]***+ +++,,,,,,EFxz
xd^xgd[(
dgd[(
d`gd[(z..R.T.C/D/////l0m000U1W11111.2/202$
xd^xa$gd[(
xd^xgd[(02h2i222*3+3,33333>4?4l444%5&5_55560^`0gd=$
xdd\$^xa$gd=
dgd[(
xd^xgd[(E4^4l4_5g5555555U6V66666A7D7W7X7Ӿh'hshyhO#h=h=hyh=h=hz6]h'h^#I6]h'h^#I5\h'h^#I66X70^`0gd=gd=21F:p\n/ =!"#$%@@@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DA@DDefault Paragraph FontRi@RTable Normal4
l4a(k(No ListB^@B[(Normal (Web)dd[$\$4U@4#p Hyperlink >*phX/
R
T&v4!> \
SbkCfpb ! b c g!h!!!""\"]"""# ###$$$$$$E%F%x%z%%%&&R&T&C'D'''''l(m(((U)W))))).*/*0*h*i****+++,+++++>,?,l,,,%&_..Z/0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000T&v4!> \
kfZ/j00[\j00
`\h00h00
h00y00 h00y00 {00 h00j00y0
0 y00 h00h00{00 j00y0 h00j00h00t%j00j00
0j00Zj00j00
000'E4X7!#'c(z026X7 "$%&(X7&TtX/X8@0(
B
S ?
4N$p,B$DxIFF/.9.I.I.W.W.5/Z/ 7.C.U.U.c.c.9/Z/ 9 *urn:schemasmicrosoftcom:office:smarttagsplace8
*urn:schemasmicrosoftcom:office:smarttagsCity9*urn:schemasmicrosoftcom:office:smarttagsState
Z/Z/! ?,,W....Z/Z/xK \nDO#[(#pyK0^#IWXOOU2BX;o(wN~Bfst9*iWb}+w'zR=v
&Z/Y@$WX/@UnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3&z Arial"hRrFYrFH(UH(U!xr4d@/@/ 2qHX)?2BX2xThis is an excerpt from The Wasted Resource: Attitudinal Problems of Calculator Use in the Classroom (Simon, 1990, diss)M. SimonXPOh+'0(<HTd p
This is an excerpt from The Wasted Resource: Attitudinal Problems of Calculator Use in the Classroom (Simon, 1990, diss)M. SimonNormalXP4Microsoft Office Word@V@,*@L*H(՜.+,D՜.+,`hp
AU@/yThis is an excerpt from The Wasted Resource: Attitudinal Problems of Calculator Use in the Classroom (Simon, 1990, diss)Title 8@_PID_HLINKSAx/* http://dissertationrecipes.com/
!"#$%&'()+,./013456789:;<=>?@ABDEFGHIJLMNOPQRURoot Entry F*WData
*1Table2 WordDocument4RSummaryInformation(CDocumentSummaryInformation8KCompObjq
FMicrosoft Office Word Document
MSWordDocWord.Document.89q